Participle clauses can have the value of an adverbial subordinate of time, reason, result, etc, especially in formal style:
Feeling tired, she went to bed early (= as she was feeling tired, she went to bed early,or she went to bed early because she was feeling tired)
Being imported, those cars are more expensive (=as they are imported..... or those cars are more expensive because...)
Opening her eyes, the baby began to cry (= when she opened her eyes.....)
Having lost the last bus, I had to walk home (= as I lost.......or I lost the last bus, so I had to walk home)
Not wanting to wake her, he tiptoed into the bedroom (= as he didn't want to..... or he tiptoed into the bedroom because he didn't......)
Used economically, one tin can last for two weeks (=if it is used economically, one tin....)
As you can see, the subject of the participle clause is usually the same as the subject of the main clause:
Knowing his tastes, I bought him a science-fiction novel (I is the subject of both knowing and bought)
If the subject is not the same, we have a 'misrelated participle' (also called 'dangling participle'), which is generally considered to be incorrect:
* Leaving the office, my head was in a swirl (the subject of leaving is I, the subject of was being my head)
However, 'misrelated participles' are acceptable in the following cases:
- when the verb in the participle clause has its own subject expressed:
Nobody having any more to say, the meeting was closed.
The last train having gone, we had to stay in London for the night.
- when the main clause has it or there as 'anticipatory subject':
Being English, it is surprising that she doesn't like tea.
Having so little time, there isn't much we can do.
- in some fixed expressions referring to the speaker's attitude:
Generally speaking, women are better students than men.
Taking everything into consideration, he should be given another chance.
Rewrite the sentences beginning with a participle clause:
1.- Sandra left work early because she didn't feel too well.
2.- When he had finished his work, he went home.
3.- The inscription was written in an unknown language, so it couldn't be deciphered.
4.- As I didn't want to offend him, I said nothing about his paintings.
5.- The manager extended Anne's contract because he was impressed by her work.
Match the sentence halves getting new ones beginning with an -ing participle clause:
1.- He was a doctor
2.- Clara had been a teacher for 15 years
3.- David had been unemployed for 9 months
4.- He didn't speak Italian
5.- I didn't expect anyone to be in the house
a.- He found life in Milan difficult
b.- He knew what side effects the medicine could have
c.- I walked straight in
d.- He accepted the first job he was offered
e.- She knew how to motivate children
1.- Not feeling too well, Sandra left work early.
2.- Having finished his work, he went home.
3.- (Being) written in an unknown language, the inscription couldn't be deciphered.
4.- Not wanting to offend him, I said nothing about his paintings.
5.- (Being) impressed by Anne's work, the manager extender her contract.
(1-b) Being a doctor, he knew what side effects the medicine could have.
(2-e) Having been a teacher for 15 years, Clara knew how to motivate children.
(3-d) Having been unemployed for 9 months, David accepted the first job he was offered
(4-a) Not speaking Italian, he found life in Milan difficult.
(5-c) Not expecting anyone to be in the house, he walked straight in.
Going by the book
Hace 2 meses